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"Manual of Instruction in the Use of Dumb Bells and Indian Clubs & Other Exercises"

(c) Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Deerfield MA. All rights reserved.
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In the decades following the Civil War (1861-1865), reformers applauded the appearance of public gymnasiums and health facilities in many cities. Morris Bornstein's manual was one of several from this period instructing American men and women in the use of Indian clubs and dumbbells. Men and women used this equipment to achieve their society's version of the ideal physique. For many reformers, truly fit men and women possessed moral as well as physical strength.


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