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NO. 32






THIS MAY CERTIFY that we have seen in operation a Winnowing Mill, made by Mr. John
Springer, (said to be Elliot's Patent Horizontal Winnowing Mill,) and we are of the opinion that
it is the best now in use.

particular advantage in cut-feed other than as above, is a matter not so obvious; and for which a satisfactory reason is more difficult to be found.

You will not think, Mr. Editor, that I make these remarks for any disrespectful or captious reasons; but as the subject is of great importance I am anxious that so interesting an experiment should be given in the most full and detailed form.

There is no subject more nearly connected with the interest of farmers than the application of their produce in the feeding of their live stock. There is an immense waste of feed with most of us, from our ignorance of the most economical form in which it may be used. This is particularly the case in respect to the keeping of horses, and the use of our coarse fodder for other stock; and in respect to the stall-feeding of beef animals it is a lamentable but an established fact that at common prices a farmer must consent to the actual loss of a great part of the hay which he gives them' and of course the sacrifice of his labor in procuring it. Any mode of using his hay by which half the quantity can be made to produce a great increase of milk, may be supposed to be favorable in some degree to an increase of meat; and is therefore matter of the most interesting inquiry.

Sterling, Oct. 1833.



Meadowbanks, Feb. 8, 1834.


For the New England Farmer.


MR. FESSENDEN, I read the minute statement and details of any agricultural process or experiment, in which exactness is attainable, always with particular interest, believing that in agriculture, experiment is the great means of improvement.

With these feelings I examined with much attention the communication of Mr. Amos Shelden on the subject of cutting hay for cattle, a gentleman whose intelligence and excellent management as a farmer is well known to me; and whose arrangements for saving manure and conducting his milk establishment, I have examined with very great satisfaction. His establishment, and that on the neighboring Barley farm belonging to Frederick Howes, Esq. of Salem, are superior models of neatness and convenience.

I have no doubt, from the experience of many years, of the great economy of cutting feed for stock, horses in a particular manner; and from a partial examination of Mr. Willis' improved Straw Cutter, I am inclined to think highly of it. But I regret that in so important a statement any thing should be matter of "guessing" when, with little trouble, certainty was attainable.

The amount of Hay consumed was according to his account conjectural, and yet he ventures to state it with exactness. This is the material point where accuracy was particularly important. In the first case likewise, he gave 8 bushels of long red potatoes--in the second, when the milk was so much increased, he gave only 4 bushels chopped. Does he mean it should be inferred from this that "chopping" the potatoes doubled the

value? The cost of labor likewise, 3 dollars per month, from the amount carried out is intended I presume for 8 dollars. Does this mean that the cutting of the feed occupied the whole time of one man? He mentions likewise 140 gallons pure water. Was the fodder given in a wet or a dry state; and was the meal sprinkled upon it or given by itself? These are matters which we should have been glad to have had stated.

The increase of milk, especially when the amount of feed both dry and succulent was so greatly reduced, is quite a remarkable fact; and as Mr. Shelden designed evidently to refer it to the use of cut-feed, we should be glad to have the opinions of this intelligent farmer on the whole subject. That the use of cut-feed for animals is matter of great economy is established, but the effect here mentioned is a extraordinary and new to me. The philosophy of digestion and nutrition is a subject very imperfectly understood; indeed the solution of the mystery can scarcely be said to be approached. That by cutting the feed it is more cleanly eaten up, and there is far less waste we know. That much feed, such as cornstalks and straw, which in a long state could scarcely be touched, will be consumed when prepared in this way, is equally matter of experience. That working cattle and especially horses, from having their food prepared in this way, are enabled to eat their food at once, and then take their rest, is an obvious, and to hard-worked animals, a great advan- tage; as otherwise, especially in journies, they must work until very late at night in order to masticate their food, and thus their sleep is broken, and the morning finds them unrefreshed. But that ruminating animals, who like our milch cows are "persons of entire leisure," should find any

For the New-England Farmer.


Haverhill, February 1834. MR. EDITOR, The time will come, no doubt, when live fences will be more common than they are. In countries where they are in general use, they furnish to the farmer a valuable supply of rough fuel when properly managed. In districts where that necessary article is becoming every year less abundant, prudence and economy admonish us to look ahead, and prepare for future necessity. Stone walls are very well where rocks are abundant. Rail and board fences are very expensive, and very unsafe. It becomes a farmer to unite in his arrangements durability, safety, and economy, and in nothing more than in fencing. If he be a man of taste, he will combine with these ornament. A good live fence, in my opinion, includes all these.

I have been used to the white thorn, the black thorn, and the crab, for this purpose; but I think they will not answer in this soil and climate. The former, I should judge, is too dry and porous, and the latter is probably too warm in summer. The Virginia white thorn, though natural to the soil, and capable of bearing the extremes of our most rigorous northern region, is decidedly too smooth for fences. I have sometimes thought of the acacia. This, however, you seem to condemn as inappropriate for the purpose. The pear in its wild state is both rough and strong, and is good fuel; but I have never known it tried for fencing. If you, or any of your valuable correspondence, know of any experiment having been made upon the pear, I should be glad to know. The truth, is, sir, I want to make about 300 rods of fencing, to render my ground convenient for a better state of cul-

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In one of the many governmental initiatives to promote the growth of silk, the government of Massachusetts offered a bounty to plant mulberry trees. This was based on the idea, as the article stated, that mulberry trees "would grow in any country between 20 and 50 degrees of latitude." It turned out that even the most robust versions of the mulberry could be killed by the hard winters of the early 1840s, and that they were not resistant to a blight that wiped out the remainder. The silk industry, though, thrived in the 1830s. The introduction from China of a new, more robust variety, Morus multicaulis, signaled to many that silk could be made profitably here. But the technical problems inherent in the creation and processing of silk, combined with the failure of the mulberry tree, meant that the domestic production of silk never amounted to much.


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"Culture of Silk" from New England Farmer

publisher   George C. Barrett
creator   Thomas Green Fessenden (1771-1837)
date   Feb 19, 1834
location   Boston, Massachusetts
height   11.25"
width   9.0"
process/materials   printed paper, ink
item type   Periodicals/Magazine
accession #   #L02.064

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See Also...

Raw Silk

"Specimen of a Leaf of the Morus Multicaulis Tree for The Silk Grower"

"Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury-Growth and Manufacture of Silk"

"Manufacture of Silk Not New in New England" from New England Farmer

"Chinese Mulberry" and "Persian Management of Silkworms from New England Farmer"

"The Silk Culturist"

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