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Many types of social reform movements took shape in the first half of the 19th century. These included religious revivals, temperance, missionary and anti-slavery societies. The Sabbath School in South Deerfield, Massachusetts, held a celebration on July 4, 1841. It included the singing of songs and a series of toasts to temperance, George Washington, anti-slavery and anti-Catholicism, as well others. The Gazette & Courier was the newspaper in Greenfield, Massachusetts, from July 20, 1841 until June 24, 1932. Before 1841 the newspaper's name changed quite frequently, with Gazette a frequent part of the title.