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These special measuring tools produced by Greenfield Tap & Die Corporation (GTD) were critical in achieving "interchangeable parts" used in machinery. The gages accurately sized holes and threads which were held to close tolerances to achieve interchangeability. The quality of gages that could measure a piece of machinery as a "go" or "no-go" machine component, gave America a distinct advantage in World War II (WWII). Historians agree that World War II (WWII) was ultimately won on the home front. Greenfield Massachusetts industrial workers were so essential that they were deferred from the draft, and Greenfield was protected by an anti- aircraft battery, able to shoot down German bombers.