(c) Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Deerfield MA. All rights reserved. Contact us for information about using this image.
Cities like New York became home to thousands of Eastern Europeans at the turn of the 20th century, but still other immigrants used it and other port cities only to enter the United States. Many of them arrived in rural towns and became part of the farming communities and culture there. Frances and Mary Allen recorded their presence in western Massachusetts when they photographed these Polish immigrant women and a child harvesting onions in Deerfield, Massacusetts, in 1913.