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In the decades following the Civil War (1861-1865), reformers applauded the appearance of public gymnasiums and health facilities in many cities. Morris Bornstein's manual was one of several from this period instructing American men and women in the use of Indian clubs and dumbbells. Men and women used this equipment to achieve their society's version of the ideal physique. For many reformers, truly fit men and women possessed moral as well as physical strength.


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"Manual of Instruction in the Use of Dumb Bells and Indian Clubs & Other Exercises"

author   Morris Bornstein
date   1880
location   New York
height   6.0"
width   4.5"
process/materials   printed paper, ink
item type   Books/Book
accession #   #L98.055

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Y.M.C.A., East Deerfield, Mass.

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"Annual Report of the Town Officers of Deerfield For the Year Ending Dec. 31, 1926- Annual Report of the School Committee"

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