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Vol. III. -- No. 181 New Series]


[Whole No. 2025 -- Vol. XXXVII.

Moral and Religious.

Of all the events and periods of human life, the last closing scene is the most important and interesting. -- The dying man has approached that awful period where time and eternity meet, -- where all his concerns and connections in this life, are to be dissolved and left behind, -- and where (if permitted his reason) all the transactions of his past busy life, will pass in review before him. It is here his pride will be humbled, in his near view of the opening grave. And it is upon his dying bed if no where else, he feels the need of the forgiveness of his multiplied sins and transgressions, -- and it is from this dreadful place, that he will pray earnestly for an interest in the atoning blood of the GREAT REDEEMER.

When a man dies he then commences an existence which will be changeless and eternal, and what he has been so foolish and unwise, as to leave undone during his day of probation, must remain undone for eternity. For there is neither knowledge nor device in the grave and the Scriptures represent the state beyond in the light of Retribution and not of Reformation. How important then that we work while the day lasts: while we have time and opportunity and health, let us not delay.

If we for a moment turn our thoughts within, and, seriously ask ourselves, from whence we came, and whither we are going, and if we view our lives as they really are -- short and transient, quickly passing away, like the morning cloud & the early dew -- and when we consider the consequences that hangs upon the improvement of the present now, I think that we must at once be convinced of the folly and madness of halting in our choice to have the substantial and eternal enjoyments of Religion and the vain and transitory pleasures of this changing fleeting scene.

Contrast the benefits resulting from Religion with those pleasures that spring from the earth, which are sensual, devilish. It is true that the world may charm and lull us to sleep upon its deceitful bosom, but it will assuredly deceive us at the last; it has promised more than it can possibly perform -- where is its consolations when we lie gasping for breath, upon our dying beds; what is the consolation it gives, or the hopes it inspires in regard to the scene that is about to open upon our astonished vision -- ah, it is then that we become convinced in good earnest of the extreme folly of our wretched choice. It has no consolations for us in this trying hour of our utmost need.

But not so with Religion, -- it comes to us in the time of our calamity full of hope and immortality. -- It lifts the agitated mind above the world & all its transitory objects, -- it by faith penetrates through the dark clouds of mortality, and opens upon our enraptured visions, the bright and glorious scenes of the heavenly world -- It shows us JESUS as our friend and our REDEEMER and JUDGE.
In view then of our approaching dissolution, and the very short period of our stay here we are urged by every consideration, and argument that can be drawn from our relation to GOD as accountable beings -- by the light of nature, and the Book of Revelation, -- by the character and attributes of JEHOVAH and by the dying agonies of the SAVIOR, -- by the glories and felicities of Heaven which are ever enduring, and by the miseries of Hell which are without end, to become not almost but all together Chirstians.N.S.

Colombia. -- Private accounts from Maraicabo, to Oct. 18, have been received by the New York Journal of Commerce. Bolivar was again at the head of the Colombian army, and it was apprehended that he would soon be again invested with the civil authority of the country. The writer says: --
"The views of Bolivar can no longer remain in doubt, -- that he aimed at absolute power is most certain. A vessel from Curacoa belonging to Carthagena touched at Rio Hache, not knowing the change that had taken place. She was taken possession of and sent here, where she arrived this morning. There was found on board of her, confidential correspondence from many of Bolivar's offiers at Curacoa, who were sent there in the hope of making a revolution in Venezuela in favor of Bolivar. One letter from General Briceno Mondez (brother-in-law to Bolivar) says there is little hope of effecting a change in Venezuela, but advises him to have done with the foolish idea of a constitution and liberty, and proceed to establish his authority by force: -- which advice if Bolivar follows it, will probably bring him to the fate of Iturbide.

"At the date of our last accounts he was at Mompox, on the Magdalena, on his way to Bogota, where a revolution had been effected in his favor, and a complete overthrow of the liberal party. The city was besieged 20 days, and in storming the Bridge leading to the town, 300 were killed. -- Civil war has thus commenced in this devoted country, and our only hope is that it may not continue. General Urdaneta is at the head of the Government till Bolviar arrives, and General Briceno was in possession of the vallies of Cucuta. Jose Gooding had not arrived there on the 16th of Sept. but was daily expected.

"Here all is perfectly quiet at present, and as this place is important as a key to New Grenada, Pacz has sent some of his most faithful troops, the Llaneros, to garrison the place. They are great rascals, but brave men, and give much trouble to the citizens. As for business, it is at a complete stand. It is somewhat sickly."

Compliment to the Ladies. -- Gov. Pope, of Arkansas Territory in a speech at a public dinner recently given to him in Washington county, in that Territory, lashes the men for not marrying. The following passage from his speech will be read with interest by all fair readers.

Many gentlemen are reluctant to encounter the trouble and expense of a wife and family, but a man who will not hazard much to make himself and a fine girl happy can hardly be relied on to meet the toils and perils of war, when his country is in danger. Permit me to tell you, gentlemen, that the ladies are ardent in their attachments, and grateful for a faithful return; and if a husband will only prefer the company of his wife to the grog-shop, gaming table, or other places of idle amusement, and convince her that she is, of all things, nearest his heart, she will work her fingers to the quick to sustain him, if he should be even a little lazy and worthless. Woman is the best gift of HEAVEN to man, and he that does not accept it hardly deserves a seat in Heaven. I have (continued the Governor) passed two days in this town, and rarely cheered by the appearance of a lady. It seems to be a town of bachelors. -- On Saturday, he supposed the ladies were too much occupied with their domestic concerns to be visible, but hoped that that on Sunday he would see, in this respectable, wealthy, and populous county, a numerous assemblage of both sexes at church, in the town or near it; but to his surprise, he was informed, on Sunday morning that there was no preaching in town or neighborhood, and that the preachers rarely came to Washington, because there were so few ladies in the place. The Governor said the idea was novel to him, but on reflection, he did not censure the preachers, for how can they expect that the glad tidings of the Gospel will penetrate the hearts of sinners, who are insensible to the charms of women?"


At a meeting of gentlemen from different parts of the County of Franklin, held at Greenfield, 24th Nov. 1830, for the purpose of taking into consideration the expediency of forming a County Lyceum: --
Voted -- That the Rev. Titus Strong be invited to preside at this meeting.
Voted -- That Mr. C. M'Farland be Secretary.
The following delegates from Town Lyceums where present: --
Greenfield, Rev. C. S. Henry, Rev. W. Bailey, James C. Alvord, Esq. Doct. A. Brigham and Mr. J. H. Coffin.
Northfield, Rev. Mr. Hosmer.
Conway, Rev. Mr. Crosby, Gen. A. Howland and Mr. John Clary.
Sunderland, Mr. H. N. Graves.
Ashfield, Messrs. A. Perry and C. M'Farland.
Voted -- That it is expedient to adopt measures to form a County Lyceum.
Voted -- That a Committee of four persons be chosen to prepare and report a Constitution.
Voted -- That Messrs. Crosby, Hosmer, Alvord, and Clary constitute said committee.
Voted -- That the above Committee be instructed to report this day at 2 o' clock, P. M.
Voted -- To adjourn this meeting until 2 o' clock P. M. Met agreeably to adjournment, and the Committee appointed for the purpose, reported a form of a Constitution, which, with several amendments was adopted in the following form:
Art. 1. This association shall be called the Franklin County Lyceum.
Art. 2. This Lyceum shall be composed of such Town Lyceums as shall accede to this Constitution; and all members of such Town Lyceums shall individually be members of this body, and such persons as are not members of Town Lyceums may become members of this body by a vote of the same.
Art. 3. The object of this Lyceum is to promote the general diffusion of useful knowledge and the improvement of common school education in this County; to effect this object, the Lyceum shall recommend the establishment and friendly co operation of Town Lyceums in the several towns in the County, and shall adopt such other measures as may excite a deeper interest on the subject of early education.
Art. 4. Each Town Lyceum shall send two delegates to each meeting of the County Lyceum, whose duty it shall be to report the state of the Town Lyceum of which they are members.
Art. 5. The officers of this Lyceum shall be a President, four Vice Presidents, a recording & corresponding Secretary, a Treasurer and a board of Curators not less than five in number, all of whom shall be chosen annually.
Art. 6. It shall be the duty of the Curators to carry into effect the votes and resolutions of the society, and procure suitable persons to deliver lectures on all subjects connected with the general objects of the Lyceum, provided however, that subjects of polemic theology be excluded.
Art. 7. The society shall meet semi-annually at Greenfield, on the third Wednesday in November, and on the third Wednesday in Mays, and also at such other times and places as the President and Curators shall appoint, provided however, that public notice be given of the time and place of such meeting, at least two weeks previous to the proposed time of meeting.
Art. 8. This Constitution may be amended by vote of three fourths of the members present at any semi-annual meeting.
Voted -- That a Committee of five persons be chosen to nominate officers for the year ensuing.
Voted -- That Gen. Howland, Rev. Mr. Henry, Rev. Mr. Hosmer, Rev. Mr. Crosby and Mr. C. McFarland constitute said committee.
The following were nominated by the Committee and accepted by the society: --
Rev. Titus Strong, President; Hon Samuel C. Allen, Rev. Theophilus Packard, D. D. Rodger Leavitt, Esq. and Doct. Stephen W. Williams, Vice Presidents; James C. Alvord, Esq. Recording Secretary; Dr. A. Brigham, Corresponding Secretary; Col. Ansel Phelps, Treasurer; Rev. Mr. Bailey, James M'Farland, Esq. Mr. John Clary, Dr. N. Jarvis and Franklin Ripley, Esq. Curators.
Voted -- To choose there delegates to attend the next State Lyceum in Boston and the Hon. Samuel C. Allen, Doct. Enos Smith and Horace W. Taft, Esq. were chosen.
Voted -- To choose a Committee, to issue through the medium of the public press, a circular, urging upon the several towns the importance of establishing Town Lyceums.
Voted -- That James C. Alvord, Esq. A. Brainard, Esq. Franklin Ripley, Esq. Mr. J. H, Coffin and Horatio G. Newcomb, Esq. constitute said Committee.
Resolved, that this society approve of the project of Mr. Clary of exhibiting and explaining the principles of his common school apparatus, and that we recommend to the towns in this County, to employ him for this purpose.
Voted -- That the proceedings of this meeting be published in the Greenfield Gazette.
Voted -- To adjourn with out day.
Attest, C. M'FARLAND, Sec'y.

Singular Discovery. -- Mr. Horton, a gentleman who was been engaged in boring for water in Providence, R. I. has presented to the public some remarkable results. In his second experiment in boring, he selected the extreme point of a wharf, many yards from the original land. -- He bored through a stream of mud -- then thro' a bog meadow containing good peat -- then thro' sand and quartz gravel. At this point water impregnated with copperas and arsenic broke forth; but determining to proceed farther, Mr. Horton next struck a vineyard and drew up vines, grapes, grape seeds, leaves, acorns, hazel nuts, pine nuts, and the seeds of unknown fruits, together with pure water. This was 35 feet below the bed of the river.


Of the Working-Men of Northampton, concluded from our last.
The arbitrary and exorbitant bar-rules of our lawyers, by exacting a heavy tax at the very gates of civil justice, are considered to be practically an infringement of our rights, and to operate with peculiar oppressiveness on the poor and unfortunate class of the community, and present a subject for the serious consideration of Working Men.

A recurrence to these subjects is certainly useful at this time, in aiding each individual to settle his own mind the question, whether political evils exist? whether there is any thing in the political affairs of the Commonwealth that requires a reform? If there be, then, as regards this part of the question, we stand on common ground with our fellow citizens of other states, and that objection that has been urged against the calling up of Working Men here, on the ground that the particular evils, which excited them elsewhere, are not to be found in our own institutions, has no force.

If we have any evils, and those evils require some remedy, and if it can be shown that the remedy applying in other states will as properly apply to those existing with us, then as regards this part of the question also, it is clear that we are on common ground with the citizens of our sister states.

Will not the remedy apply as well here as in other places? Is any change to be made in the statute laws of New York, through the influence of Working Men; and may not the influence of Working Men here be brought as well, and in the same way, to bear on any obnoxious statute in our own books?

As regards the distribution of offices, we certainly have the same complaints to make. On this subject we submit a few remarks.

It is said that farmers and mechanics now have their share of offices, but we by no means admit the truth of it. Neither do we contend that they should in exact proportion to their numbers. All that we contend for is that they should enjoy equal rights with others, that their occupation should at least be no objection to them; that they should have the same inducements to qualify themselves for public usefulness, the same promise of encouragement -- in a word, that they should feel that talents and virtue should bear the same value in them as in a man of any other profession.

Working Men, indeed, have some offices of honor or labor; but who are they who obtain every office of emolument? Not the farmer, nor mechanic. A primary end of all offices in our government, is the discharge of certain duties for the public, but when offices are properly bestowed, when they are given to men of proper qualifications they partake of the nature of rewards, and afford encouragement to the cultivation of such virtues as the man is distinguished for who receives them. Now we contend that qualifications and merit should constitute the claim, and not birth nor wealth nor family or party alliance, and if any class is to be proscribed on account of occupation from the enjoyment or the profits or honors of office, we hold that the laboring class should be the last; because when professional men are increasing to a degree inconvenient for themselves and vastly alarming to the community, the inducements of office should not be thrown out to increase this tendency; and when the laboring community are already too much depressed both for their own good and for the good of a republican government, they should not be deprived of every encouragement.

It is for the good of the state that their character be elevated, their hopes raised, and their self-respect increased; then let men of talents and public spirit be encouraged to stay among them, and cultivate their talents, and cherish their public spirit, and not draw them off to professions already crowded, nor break down their spirit and obliterate their talents by the humiliating consideration, that they are doomed, by their very occupation, to perpetual obscurity.

Farmers, Mechanics -- It is your duty to see to this; the fault is at your own doors; blame none but yourselves; you can correct the evils if you will.

I say look to the constitution yourselves, and see in what light it recognizes you. Learn to value elective franchise, and hold your right of suffrage, not as a thing of no worth fit only to be bartered away, to purchase the flattering smile of some higher sycophant, or to secure yourself from the arrogant frown or a republican tyrant -- but view it as a weapon put into your hands for the defence of your country; use it not with indifference or selfishness, but with the noblest emotions of patriotism; use it not with cowardly fear, but with independence.

We unhesitatingly say that in regard to such offices as the working man may be qualified to fill he ought to share an equal chance for obtaining them with any professional man, whether these offices are the gift of the Governor or the people. The Governor we cannot reach. But if the working man by his immediate vote is instrumental in bringing about a different result, he is treacherously instrumental in debasing his country, and slandering his government. But this has been done and will continue to be done, if you do not arouse from your lethargy and act with decision and disinterestedness, and with union of purpose.

By this it is not intended that you should combine and that obstinately in opposition to any class of men, nor is it expected or desired, that every one of you should on all subjects be united in sentiment. Local interests & different views cannot in the nature of things be overcome.

But you should decidedly and unitedly maintain for the welfare of the state, that social influence, and those political rights which have been often prostituted to subserve the selfish and party purposes of office seekers and political demagogues.

Is there any man in the community, who has hitherto possessed his elective franchise with
careless indifference -- then it is time for that individual to decide, that this political treasure shall no longer be abused -- but that he will henceforward, independently and intelligently use it for the welfare of the state.

But so long as the community is full of others who like him are throwing away their political privileges, dropping down their weapons of defense, and slumbering like lifeless statues upon their posts, the decision of this single individual cannot close up the wide unguarded avenues of the exposed safeguards of the state; there must be a united waking up and buckling on of the armor of the people -- there must be a combined & determined effort to assist each other to throw off this dangerous drowsiness.

Throw aside then all jealousies of each other; let not the farmer be jealous of the mechanic, nor the mechanic be jealous of the farmer.

On those great principles which should constitute their only pledge to each other, and only bond of union, there can be no difference of interest. The farmer and mechanic are one. Neither let individuals be jealous of each other. -- This is the side that your political enemies will always storm; here they will enter your citadel if you are not aware.

Jealousy, does it come to you in whispers from another -- he is the sly, intriguing politician; cast him from you as you would a viper. Does it spring up in your own breast -- it is selfishness; abominate it. If you set out to make a reformation in these things, set out with perfect disinterestedness. Then if you are called to give an office to another, no better than yourself, you can do it heartily. You will bear with us while we offer one word by way of admonition. While we are ready heartily to co-operate with you in endeavoring in all proper ways to secure your just political rights, we are anxious that no narrow policy should be pursued.

It is not just nor safe that the professional man should hold a monopoly of office, nor is it just or safe that you should do the same yourselves.

You would not "deprive yourselves or the State of the service of those exalted characters which are to be found in every profession, nor would you condemn to obscurity the man who was formed to diffuse lustre and glory around a State," merely because he was not a farmer. We rejoice most heartily at the desires which have been manifested here by labouring men to improve their condition, and we approve of the views that have been evinced in relation to this subject. We believe that the distinctions of office, rightly distributed, are a powerful and salutary stimulus to industry and integrity, and we believe that the laboring man should contend for a just participation in this incitement for the benefit of his own class. But permit us to say that this is not the only inducement that is held out to virtuous action, or intellectual exertion.

Knowledge and virtue bring with them their own rewards. Let us cultivate our minds, and as members of a Working man's party, let us encourage those things that tend to increase the facilities for general diffusion of knowledge. Social Libraries commend themselves peculiarly to your patronage; and social meetings for mental improvement, in science and literature, may be made exceedingly useful, not only as a source of mental improvement, but as a means of promoting general benevolence and good feelings towards each other.

The distinctions of office can be given to but few, but knowledge is within the reach of all. A man may obtain an office, and after all obtain nothing valuable, but knowledge is sure to make its possessor rich.

We say then, that "Wisdom is the principal thing." We subjoin one remark. "The fear of GOD is the beginning of wisdom."

We would by all means that laboring men as well as others, should cultivate a public spirit, and that they should value any expression of confidence from their fellow citizens, and be ready to render such services to the public as they may be called to perform, but we would in most decided terms, warn any man against seeking for office as the ultimate desire of his heart, as the end of all his public spirit. That man is to be pitied, who devotes his every thought and effort to this object. An office may give him pleasure or emolument, but it brings with it cares and anxieties; it may give him honor, but it is sure to expose him to envy, to slander and abuse.

Besides such a man can do but little to advance the interests of this association; he will be met by the sneers and taunts of those who are unfriendly to his cause; they will charge him with seeking exclusively his own. It is therefore peculiarly necessary for him who would be useful here, to watch his own motives, and by careful self examination, secure to himself the all supporting conviction his principles are pure -- that his aims are not selfish; then with an unblemishing firmness, he will be able to face all the ridicule and jeers, which the idle may invent, and all the overbearing insolence which may be offered by the powerful.

Working Men -- If you entertain right views of your standing and cherish within you correct principles of action, high and exalted motives urge you forward.

The glory of a republican government will ever depend on the high standing, the intelligence and integrity of the great body of the people. The foundation of that government has already been laid by your independent spirit, its walls are cemented by the blood of your patriotism, the superstructure has been reared by your wisdom and virtue; it is now your part to preserve, to beautify and adorn it; and by the glory which you shed around it, to recommend it to the nations who are now enthralled in despotism; if they are ever redeemed from their present bondage, it must be, Working Men, through your instrumentality. Your influence then is not to be confined to yourselves, to this day, to this place, but its sphere is vast as the theatre of the world, and its operations lasting as the duration of time.

The Nantucket Inquirer states, that a dead right whale, of 60 or 70 barrels, was found on Friday morning, by Mr. Obadiah Coffin on shore, on the East end of Nantucket.


Extract of a letter from a friend in the Cherokee Nation, to his brother in this place, dated, Cherokee Nation, Oct. 12, 1830.

"The state of the Indians grows no more favorable, as respects their political affairs. They are greatly harrassed by the Georgians. The state of Georgia, you know, has extended her laws over the Indians, and now the object of the State appears to be, to lay hold of every fault they can find in the Indians, that they many drag them out before her Courts and thereby so dispirit them that they will be willing to flee to the western wilderness. This is one way of getting land from an inoffensive people, that is rather new. But the Indians are firm in their purpose to stay, and will, I think, remain so until they can get a decision in the United States Court, which I hope will be favorable to these poor creatures.

"There are in this nation large and extensive gold mines which are clearly and entirely the property of Indians -- yet white people from all quarters, but mostly from Georgia and Tennessee, have flocked into the nation and more than a million of dollars have been carried off by them in gold, which is nothing better than robbery. But the U. S. troops which have been stationed at the mines, have at last cleared the country of these robbers, and in doing this they have also driven the Indians from their own mines. The only hope of the missionaries in this nation is, that the GOD of justice and mercy will yet appear for the injured people in some way unlooked for, and stay the rage and oppression of their enemies, restore peace and quietness among them and cause their rights to be respected.

"Perhaps you would like to know more about the gold that is found in this country. It is mostly found in small particles and obtained by washing. It is some times found in a pure state. One woman, however, found three large pieces lately for which she got one hundred silver dollars, another found a piece worth $40. The nearest mine is about twenty miles from us, though some of our neighbors have found some gold near our plantation.

"There is good attention paid to meetings by the natives, and to the schools, by the children. This is rather surprising considering the disturbed state of affairs in the nation. All that the Indians want is, to have the white people let them alone. They trouble no one, and if no one troubled them they would soon become civilized.

"We are still much pleased with our work as missionaries and our situation is quite pleasant."

From the Belchertown Sentinel.

We respectfully invite the attention of our readers to the new and popular school books published by A. Phelps of Greenfield, advertised in today's paper. We have heretofore had occasion to examine them minutely, and compare their merits with other popular publications, and we are, therefore, prepared to give our opinion decidedly in favour of them. The Franklin Primer is designed for the younger classes, and contains well arranged and judiciously chosen lessons in orthography and reading, as well as the leading definitions of the sciences. The Improved Reader contains numerous interesting stories, and fables, and moral essays, and illustrations of natural history, &c., so arranged as to excite and keep up the most intense interest in the scholar, and so classed as to meet his progressive advancement. The General Class Book is a selection of reading-lessons from our best authors, and is designed as a reading book for the more advanced scholars. We do not hesitate to recommend their introduction into our schools, and should rejoice to see them displace the lumber that has obtained them so long.

The question has often been insultingly asked by foreign reviewers, "who reads an American book?" It would seem that this question can be no longer asked, with propriety. The Revue Encyclopedique of Paris, speaks of these books in the most favorable terms, and recommends their translation and introduction into the schools of France. All the leading literary and scientific journals of this country favorably review these books, which is certainly no small praise. We hope the enterprising publisher will receive ample remuneration for his trouble, in the rapid and extensive sale of his books.

Singular Case. -- A cause of a very singular nature is likely to occupy the attention of the Tribunals shortly. At the time of the late elections, a priest of the arrondissement of Verdun being present at a meeting of the Municipal Council of his village, exclaimed in a prophetic accent: -- "If the 221 are re-elected, we will bring 200,000 Russians to set you to rights! The threat became a subject of general conversation in the country. As soon as the result of the elections was known a brandy merchant of a neighboring village, believing in the prediction of the ecclesiastic, hastened to send off 100 casks of brandy to Paris in the hope of selling them to advantage, upon the arrival of the hyperborean defenders of the Throne and the Altar. Upon the events of July taking place, the speculator calculated upon reaping double profit. The recognition of the new Government by England rendered him uneasy, but the conviction that the Abbe could work miracles at a pinch, kept up his spirits. However, he gave up all hope upon the arrival of the news of the friendly reception given to General Athalin by the Court of St. Petersburgh, and has brought an action against the priest to produce his 200,000 Russians within a week, or pay the value of the brandy with damages and costs. -- Gazettegles Tribunaux.

Once on a time, a Dutchman and a Frenchman were travelling in Pennsylvania, when their horse lost a shoe. -- They drove up to a black smith's shop and no one being in, they proceeded to the house to enquire. The Frenchman rapped and called out -- "Is de Smitty mitin?" "Shtand back," says Hans, "let me shpeak, ish der black-smit's shop en der house?"

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The front pages of antebellum newspapers were printed from blocks of text that in turn were made up of individual lead letters. These blocks were put together in columns and the whole assembly held in a large wooden frame. This front page from the Greenfield Gazette & Franklin Herald contained a number of articles. Some were current news, but others, like the article on the far left ("Moral and Religious"), were composed weeks in advance. The current articles hinted at the larger events of the world. For example, an article describes how Simon Bolivar, "The Liberator" of South America, was making his last attempt to retake Colombia in 1830. Another article described the plight of the Cherokee Nation. The Cherokees, one of the "Five Civilized Tribes," sought to make peace with the United States and retain possesion of their land in the southeast United States. Although they won in the Supreme Court, President Andrew Jackson allowed Georgia to brutally resettle them to Oklahoma along the "Trail of Tears" five years after this account.


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Frontpage of Greenfield Gazette & Franklin Herald newspaper

publisher   Phelps and Ingersoll [editors]
date   Dec 7, 1830
location   Greenfield, Massachusetts
height   20.75"
width   14.5"
process/materials   printed paper, ink
item type   Periodicals/Newspaper
accession #   #L02.137

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See Also...

"Exhibition of the Young Men's Lyceum"

"A Practical System of Modern Geography: or View of the Present State of the World."

Frontpage of Gazette & Courier newspaper

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