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Many types of social reform movements took shape in the first half of the 19th century. These included religious revivals, temperance, missionary and anti-slavery societies. The Temperance and Abolition Societies in Leverett, Massachusetts, held a joint meeting on July 5, 1841. They resolved to form Juvenile Temperance Societies and to persevere in the abolition of slavery.
The Gazette & Courier was the newspaper in Greenfield, Massachusetts, from July 20, 1841 until June 24, 1932. Before 1841 the newspaper's name changed quite frequently, with Gazette a frequent part of the title.